We now have solid, scientific evidence of this troubling trend. For example:
- In wheat and barley, protein concentrations declined by 30 to 50 percent between the years 1938 and 1990.
a study of 45 corn varieties developed from 1920 to 2001, grown side by
side, found that the concentrations of protein, oil and three amino
acids have all declined in the newer varieties.
- Six minerals have declined by 22 to 39 percent in 14 widely grown wheat varieties developed over the past 100 years.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient data shows that the
calcium content of broccoli averaged 12.9 milligrams per gram of dry
weight in 1950, but only 4.4 mg/g dry weight in 2003.
of this evidence has been assembled and rigorously reviewed by Dr.
Donald R. Davis, a now (mostly) retired chemist from the University of
So what’s causing these declines? The
evidence indicates there are at least two forces at work. The first is
what agriculture researchers call the environmental “dilution effect.”
Davis notes that researchers have known since the 1940s that yield
increases produced by fertilization, irrigation and other environmental
means used in industrial farming tend to decrease the concentrations of
minerals in those plants. These techniques give growers higher yields,
and consumers get less expensive food. But now it appears there’s a
hidden long-term cost — lowered food quality.
For example, a
study of phosphorous fertilizer on raspberries found that applying high
levels of phosphorus caused the yield to double and concentrations of
phosphorus to increase in the plants, but meanwhile levels of eight
other minerals declined by 20 to 55 percent!
The other force at work is what Davis calls the
dilution effect — the decline in nutrient concentration that results
when plant breeders develop high-yielding varieties without a primary
focus on broad nutrient content. That’s what the studies of wheat, corn
and broccoli confirm.
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